Nested Set pattern for Laravel’s Eloquent ORM.

For Nested Set pattern , I would suggest to follow this links

The theory behind, a TL;DR version

An easy way to visualize how a nested set works is to think of a parent entity surrounding all of its children, and its parent surrounding it, etc. So this tree:

root
  |_ Child 1
    |_ Child 1.1
    |_ Child 1.2
  |_ Child 2
    |_ Child 2.1
    |_ Child 2.2

Could be visualized like this:

 ___________________________________________________________________
|  Root                                                             |
|    ____________________________    ____________________________   |
|   |  Child 1                  |   |  Child 2                  |   |
|   |   __________   _________  |   |   __________   _________  |   |
|   |  |  C 1.1  |  |  C 1.2 |  |   |  |  C 2.1  |  |  C 2.2 |  |   |
1   2  3_________4  5________6  7   8  9_________10 11_______12 13  14
|   |___________________________|   |___________________________|   |
|___________________________________________________________________|

The numbers represent the left and right boundaries. The table then might look like this:

id | parent_id | lft  | rgt  | depth | data
 1 |           |    1 |   14 |     0 | root
 2 |         1 |    2 |    7 |     1 | Child 1
 3 |         2 |    3 |    4 |     2 | Child 1.1
 4 |         2 |    5 |    6 |     2 | Child 1.2
 5 |         1 |    8 |   13 |     1 | Child 2
 6 |         8 |    9 |   10 |     2 | Child 2.1
 7 |         8 |   11 |   12 |     2 | Child 2.2

  For more information you can follow links.